2019, the second warmest year in history after 2016
Written by Royal Society of Londres
Confirmed. 2019 has been the second warmest year since measurements are made. This is indicated by the Copernicus climate change service (C3S). Meanwhile, Europe recorded its warmest year in history by a narrow margin. Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission and the European Space Agency that seeks to build an autonomous observation system (atmospheric, marine, environmental …) from the earth.
In addition, together with the Copernicus Atmospheric Surveillance Service (CAMS), the C3S also reports that CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere have continued to increase.
WMO already estimated that 2019 would probably be the second or third warmest year in history.
The temperature data set provided by the C3S shows that, in 2019, the average global surface air temperature was 0.04 ° C lower than that of 2016, the warmest year in history.
The data also reveals four conclusions
1) The five warmest years that are recorded have been those of the last five years, with 2019 being outlined as the second hottest year. Also, the decade from 2010 to 2019 has been the warmest in history ·
2) The temperature of 2019 was almost 0.6 ° C warmer than the average for the period between 1981 and 2010
3) The average temperature of the last five years has been between 1.1 and 1.2 ° C higher than the pre-industrial level as defined by the IPCC, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
and 4) Europe recorded the hottest calendar year in its history, with temperatures slightly above those of 2014, 2015 and 2018.
In addition, according to satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere worldwide. CO2 emissions continued to increase in 2019 and increased by 2.3 ± 0.8 ppm.
Alaska and Arctic
The greatest warming against the average for the period 1981-2010 occurred in Alaska and in large areas of the Arctic . Most of the continental zones registered temperatures above the average, especially Eastern and Southern Europe, Southern Africa and Australia. In contrast, central and southeastern Canada experienced annual temperatures below average.
In Europe, all seasons were warmer than usual , and summer and fall were the hottest rooms in the records. None of the stations broke records in terms of average temperature, but the Old Continent recorded its warmest calendar year in history, with temperatures slightly higher than those of 2014, 2015 and 2018.
The five warmest years that are recorded have been those of the last five years
“The year 2019 has been another exceptionally warm year. In fact, this is the second hottest year in the world for our data set, and many months have broken records in this regard, ”says Carlo Buontempo , head of the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S).
This expert highlights that the operational program processes millions of terrestrial, marine, aerial and satellite observations daily. Use an avant-garde computer model to summarize all these observations.
The last five years have been the warmest five years in history and the last decade, the hottest one on record. “Without a doubt, these are alarming signals,” says this meteorological service.
Meanwhile, CO2 concentrations continue to rise. The analysis of satellite data indicates that carbon dioxide concentrations have continued to grow in recent years, including 2019. The CO2 concentrations obtained via satellite are representative of the CO2 combination ratio of the average column, also called XCO2 .
The temperature of 2019 was almost 0.6 ° C warmer than the average for the period between 1981 and 2010
The average annual growth of XCO2 for 2019 is estimated to be 2.3 ± 0.8 ppm per year. This data exceeds the growth rate of 2018, which stood at 2.1 ± 0.5 ppm / year, but is lower than the 2.9 ± 0.3 ppm / year recorded in 2015.
Regular climate monitoring
Every year, the C3S offers a complete overview of the climate of our continent in its European Climate Status report . In the report, more climate variables and specific weather events from the last year will be analyzed. The European Climate State of 2019 will be published in spring 2020.
In addition to the annual temperature values, the C3S periodically publishes weather bulletins at the beginning of each month in which it exposes the anomalies observed in the surface air temperature around the world, sea ice coverage and hydrological variables.